Tag Archives: REDD

GUEST POST: Time to Map and Monitor Pakistan’s Forests at the National Scale – Transparency and Accuracy

In Pakistan, too often, forested lands are treated as “free wastelands”. Deforestation and forest degradation is occurring primarily due to institutional negligence. An eye-opening example is massive deforestation in just four months observed in National Zoo-cum Park & Botanical Garden, Bani Gala, right in the capital territory of Islamabad. (see Fig. 1).

Figure1

Figure 1: A massive deforestation in four months (May-Oct, 2016) in National Zoo-cum Park & Botanical Garden, Bani Gala, Islamabad (Source of satellite images: Google Earth)

In Pakistan, many people consider real estate as the best investment, and this gives incentives for encroachers to intrude on state-owned land. Forested lands, due to their natural beauty and as a source of a double benefit, i.e., timber and land, are especially threatened by illegal land grabbers. Another example of forest degradation in Murree, Galliat region can be seen in Fig. 2, where 7.58 km2 of forest land was destroyed by  housing societies.

Figure2

Figure 2: Illegal encroachments in state-owned forests from 2005 to 2011: Bahria Golf City (Above) and OGDC Housing Society (Below). (Source of satellite images: Google Earth). See more detail in this published research article.

On the bright side, in recent years Pakistan has taken gigantic steps towards tree plantation under national (Green Pakistan Programme) and provincial (Billion Tree Tsunami in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa) initiates. These initiates have been well received and recognised globally. As an example, in 2009, Pakistan received a certificate from Guinness Book of World Records in acknowledgment of planting 541,176 mangrove plants in a single day in Keti Bunder (Indus Delta), Thatta district, Sindh province (see Fig. 3).

Figure3

Figure 3: Monitoring mangrove plantations: Repeat terrestrial photographs taken on May 2010 and May 2015 (left) and satellite images showing afforestation and conversion of mudflats into new mangroves (right). (Source of photographs: WWF-Pakistan; source of satellite images: Google Earth).

We should not forget that since 2011, Pakistan is part of UN-REDD (United National- Reducing Emission from Deforestation and Forest Degradation) program. Under the REDD program, developing countries receive performance-based incentives (payments) for reducing emissions of greenhouse gasses from forestlands. National Forest Monitoring System (NFMS) and Forest Reference Emission Level (FREL) / Forest Reference Level (FRL) systems are mandatory elements for REDD reporting system to get the financial benefits. Accurate and up-to-date information about the size, distribution, composition, and condition of forests and woodlands is essential for developing and monitoring policies and guidance to support their sustainable management. Although, in Pakistan, many independent researchers and organizations are conducting a number of scattered and local studies (e.g. Mapping Deforestation and Forest Degradation Patterns in Western Himalaya, Pakistan), however, a fundamental question remains:

How can we, in a systematic and transparent manner, map and monitor wall to wall Pakistan land cover and forest areas at the national scale?

Over the years, the use of satellite remote sensing data has become most popular among researchers and policy makers, for both smaller and larger scales. Consistent time series medium resolution freely available remote sensing data (e.g. Landsat, Sentinel-2 etc.) provide frequent, synoptic, and accurate measurements, monitoring, and simulation of earth surface features, especially forests. Unbiased ground information (field surveys, photographs, forest inventory, etc.) are very much necessary for the accuracy and evaluation of any product derived from satellite images. Under the REDD program, for FREL/FRL construction and reporting, Pakistan has to follow the guidance and guidelines of IPCC and the UNFCCC. For reporting to international bodies, Pakistan has to combine remote sensing and ground-based forest carbon inventory approaches for estimating, as appropriate, anthropogenic forest-related greenhouse gas emissions by sources and removals by sinks, forest carbon stocks, and forest area changes.

So, in my view, without further delay, Pakistan needs to take five steps for better forest management and policy formulations on the national scale:

  1. To operationalize satellite-based annual forest monitoring system for spatial quantification of deforestation, forest degradation, and afforestation
  2. To conduct comprehensive forest inventories for accuracy assessment, current forest stock, and greenhouse gas inventory
  3. To assess satellite-based land cover and land use changes at 5 years interval as an activity data for FRL reporting
  4. To map forest type and biomass/carbon stocks through integration of satellite and forest inventory data for spatial identification and quantification of habitats of tree species
  5. To develop a web-based visualization and dissemination tool using geospatial and socio-economic data for transparency and consistency

Conflicts of Interest: The findings reported stand as scientific study and observations of the author and do not necessarily reflect as the views of author’s organizations.

About this post: This is a guest post by Hammad Gilani. Learn more about this blog’s authors here.

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GUEST POST: Land and Forest Cover Mapping and Monitoring – Global Scale Products

This image is taken from a recent paper by Kim et al. (2014), accessible here: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0034425714003149

This image is taken from a recent paper by Kim et al. (2014), accessible here: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0034425714003149

The availability and accessibility of global land and forest cover data sets plays an important role in many global, regional and national change studies. Recent developments in earth observing satellite technology, information technology, computer hardware and software, and infrastructure development have helped in the development of better quality land cover data sets. As a result, such data sets are increasingly becoming available, the user-base is ever widening, application areas have been expanding, and the potential of many other applications are enormous.

Data Source Year Resolution Available@
Very Coarse Resolution Products Mathews Global Vegetation/Land Use 1983 1° x 1° http://www.giss.nasa.gov/
Olson Land Cover and Vegetation 1983 0.5° x 0.5° http://www.grid.unep.ch/
Willson and Henderson–Sellers Global Land Cover 1985 1° x 1° http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/
Coarse Resolution Products DeFries/Townshend-Global Land Cover 1995 10 km x 10 km http://glcf.umiacs.umd.edu/
GLCC (IGBP DISCover) 1997 1 km x 1 km http://edcdaac.usgs.gov/
UMD Land Cover 2000 1 km x 1 km http://glcf.umiacs.umd.edu/
MODIS Land Cover 2003 1 km x 1 km http://edcdaac.usgs.gov/
Vegetation Continuous Fields 2003 1 km x 1 km http://glcf.umiacs.umd.edu/
GLC-2000 2003 1 km x 1 km http://www.gvm.sai.jrc.it/
MODIS vegetation continuous fields (VCF) 2011 250 m x 250 m http://glcf.umiacs.umd.edu/
GLOBCOVER 2009 300 m x 300 m http://www.esa.int/
MODIS Land Cover 2008 500 m x 500 m http://edcdaac.usgs.gov/
Medium Resolution Products JAXA global PALSAR mosaic and forest/non-forest map (2007-2010) 2013 25 m x 25 m JAXA EORC
GeoCover LCTM 2003 30 m x 30 m http://www.earthsat.com/
China Global Land Cover 2012 30 m x 30 m http://www.globallandcover.com/
Global Forest Watch 2013 30 m x 30 m http://www.globalforestwatch.org/
GEO US Global Land Cover 2013 30 m x 30 m http://landcover.usgs.gov/

How much is the South Asian region benefiting?

I think we can benefit at the regional and/or at the national level. In the South Asian region, as we are well aware, lack of data and information has been one of the major limitations on policy and decision makers in addressing regional environmental issues. These issues include the development of greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories, the evolution of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) mechanisms, and the assessment of land degradation, as well as optimal land use planning.

How accurate are these products?

At different platforms debates and collaborations are going on to make global products more accurate and acceptable. Global scale study can’t come up to the demands of the national level scale. But based on our interest (land and/or forest cover change), we can get hold of the above-mentioned products, and after a certain levels of personal validation, these can be used and further analysed, instead of starting from scratch.

Conflicts of Interest: The findings reported stand as scientific study and observations of the author and do not necessarily reflect as the views of author’s organizations.
About this post: This is a guest post by Hammad Gilani. Learn more about this blog’s authors here